By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process.
This feeling of discomfort was called cognitive dissonance by social psychologist Leon Festinger (1957), who suggested that individuals will be motivated to remove this dissonance in whatever way they can (p. After capturing the reader’s attention, the opening should go on to introduce the research question and explain why it is interesting. He opened his article with the following humourous anecdote: A friend whose mother is suffering symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) tells the story of taking her mother to visit a nursing home, preliminary to her mother’s moving there.
During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room.
Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure.
For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.