How To Write A Bibliography For A Research Paper

List authors in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by a period. Journal titles are generally abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations maintained by the ISSN International Centre.

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Multiple works by the same author are listed alphabetically by title.

The references are numbered in that sequence, such that a work authored by Adam is number 1, Brown is number 2, and so on.

Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed].

Washington (DC): ASM Press; 2002 [accessed February 28, 2014].

For numerous specific examples, see Chapter 29 of the 8th edition of Scientific Style and Format. Extent can include information about pagination or number of volumes and is considered optional. For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.” Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, De Busk RF, et al. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995. Author(s) plus editor(s) or translator(s) Klarsfeld A, Revah F.

The following examples illustrate the citation–sequence and citation–name systems. Notes can include information of interest to the reader, such as language of publication other than English; such notes are optional. Organization as author Advanced Life Support Group. Location (usually the page range for the article) is preceded by a colon. For the end reference, list authors in the order in which they appear in the original text. Use periods to separate each element, including author(s), date of publication, article and journal title, and volume or issue information. (Author(s) Year) For articles with 2 authors, names are separated by a comma in the end reference but by “and” in the in-text reference. The same number is used for subsequent in-text references to the same document. In citation–name, the end references are listed alphabetically by author. The two systems are identical except for the order of references. Essential notes provide information about location, such as a URL for online works. For books with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma. In both systems, numbers within the text refer to the end references. Numbers assigned to the end references are used for the in-text references regardless of the sequence in which they appear in the text of the work. 1988;8(4 Suppl):31S–37S Volume with supplement but no issue Heemskerk J, Tobin AJ, Ravina B. Multiple issue numbers Ramstrom O, Bunyapaiboonsri T, Lohmann S, Lehn JM. For example, if a work by Zielinski is number 56 in the reference list, each in-text reference to Zielinski will be number 56 also. Volume with issue and supplement Gardos G, Cole JO, Haskell D, Marby D, Paine SS, Moore P. From chemical to drug: neurodegeneration drug screening and the ethics of clinical trials. Chemical biology of dynamic combinatorial libraries. Consult your publisher to determine which system you will need to follow. Click on the tabs below for more information and to see some common examples of materials cited in each style, including examples of electronic sources.


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