The ambition is to write an intellectual history of the discourses and practices that led liberals to believe in an empirical and normative triumph that had never occurred.I challenge the intentions and implications of Kant’s philosophies, the “end of History” appropriation of Hegel’s dialectics, and the faulty presuppositions of Huntington’s thesis.Back to top “Liberalism After Triumphalism: How We Arrived at the Democratic Recession” This dissertation examines liberal triumphalism and its undoing in the “democratic recession,” the erosion of the quality and quantity of democracy which the world has endured since 2006.
Drawing particularly on Derrida, but also on other poststructuralist scholars, this thesis argues that the binary matter/language (real world/discourse) is an undecidable terrain , insofar as it takes place on an undecidable ground, the terrain of ‘the political’, to paraphrase Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe.
As a consequence, this thesis intends to challenge both the notion that there is an ontological and stable demarcation between a material world and a linguistic one and the assumption that this demarcation is Subsequently, I engage with territoriality and borders in International Politics, in an attempt to demonstrate how the intuitive materiality of those structures must be constantly (re)enacted.
Moreover, it argues that most research on public opinion tends to be US-centric and emphasizes that theoretical models can be improved by considering country-specific variables such as institutional frameworks or political culture.
Overall, the paper aims to broaden our understanding of the complex and often interactive relationship between public opinion and foreign policy.
As a result, the process whereby territory is materialised is considered to be a pivotal part of the legitimation of national sovereignty in general.
Finally, this thesis also tries to address some of the socio-political consequences that spring from those political performances, especially those related to immigration, such as: the mass killing, and the random imprisonment of illegal immigrants caught at the borders.This policy along with his speeches on borders security are examined and then construed as examples of the ‘politics of a policy aimed particularly at materialising the American territory, dragging it away from history and sociality.In so doing, this policy enables the American state to portray itself as a mere guardian of something (territory) that is .By introducing FPA theory to the field of EU enlargement, the dissertation contributes towards closing this gap.The analysis also contributes to the theoretical debate on the public opinion-foreign policy nexus within FPA by revealing that neither a bottom-up nor a top-down logic sufficiently explains the relationship between mass opinion and enlargement policy.Materially destroyed France, still suspicious of a surprise attack of its neighbour, saw large German reparations as a key facet of their security strategy.Britain, on the other hand, vied for German gold as it struggled with £7.4 billion national debt while planning to return to the gold standard in the context “structural” gold shortage.The dissertation aims to explain why the member states’ foreign policies towards enlargement differ despite these similar trends in public opinion and oftentimes similar external incentives.Building on Thomas Risse-Kappen’s domestic structure approach, it stresses the importance of country-specific factors in explaining different effects of public opinion on enlargement preferences.“One War, Three Men and Six Billion Pounds: The German Reparations Question after the First World War”.Following the First World War, the victorious Allied and Associated Powers decided to impose a 30-year-long reparations obligation of £6.6 billion on Germany.