Nine Case Studies In International Environmental Negotiation

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According to a 2014 survey by Nasiritousi, Hjerpe, Linnér3, it is perceived as being influential on decisions, agenda setting and policy-markers in particular on issues of mitigation where industry has a central role to play.

According to a recent BINGO statement4, one of their key objectives is, in addition to provide technical and sectoral expertise from its members, to promote flexible market-based instruments, innovation and technology deployment.

This may lead to difficulties in presenting common positions to the Parties, as well as possible problems of coordination.

For ENGOs, which has the largest number of members, fragmentation of opinions led to a split into two main groups, represented by two different focal points, CAN and CJN! Divisions may arise for example out of the divergent positions on the paths to take towards decarbonisation, on the kind of actions desired by individual NGOs, or between NGOs from industrialised and developing countries on the key issue of 'common but differentiated responsibilities'.

The membership of NGO constituencies has risen considerably, with an ever-increasing number of organisations being granted observer status since 1 in Berlin in 1995, as shown in Figure 5.1.

Nine Case Studies In International Environmental Negotiation University Of Waterloo Thesis

This illustrates the growing importance of the negotiations for external stakeholders, who seek either to influence their outcomes, or to get first-hand information about their progress.

However, this increased participation also signifies a growing heterogeneity of opinion within the NGO constituencies.

While this process may make them more representative and influential, it can also affect negatively their ability to agree on a common position.

Undeniably, BINGO members also represent important economic interests for governments and are well represented, but it is important to highlight that their interests are far from homogeneous.

BINGO combines a large array of companies worldwide, from large emitters to technical solutions providers, the latter having grown in importance over the years.

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