Much of computer science involves designing completely automatic systems that will later solve some specific problem -- systems to accept input data and, in a reasonable amount of time, calculate the correct response or a correct-enough approximation.
In addition, people in computer science spend a surprisingly large amount of human time finding and fixing problems in their programs -- debugging.
It can also be applied to a product or process prior to an actual failure event—when a potential problem can be predicted and analyzed, and mitigation applied so the problem never occurs.
Techniques such as failure mode and effects analysis can be used to proactively reduce the likelihood of problems occurring.
Mental health professionals study the human problem solving processes using methods such as introspection, behaviorism, simulation, computer modeling, and experiment.
Social psychologists look into the person-environment relationship aspect of the problem and independent and interdependent problem-solving methods.One such component is the emotional valence of "real-world" problems and it can either impede or aid problem-solving performance.Researchers have focused on the role of emotions in problem solving , In conceptualization, human problem solving consists of two related processes: problem orientation and the motivational/attitudinal/affective approach to problematic situations and problem-solving skills.The process starts with problem finding and problem shaping, where the problem is discovered and simplified.The next step is to generate possible solutions and evaluate them.The ability to understand what the goal of the problem is, and what rules could be applied, represents the key to solving the problem.Sometimes the problem requires abstract thinking or coming up with a creative solution.Rehabilitation psychologists studying individuals with frontal lobe injuries have found that deficits in emotional control and reasoning can be remediated with effective rehabilitation and could improve the capacity of injured persons to resolve everyday problems.Interpersonal everyday problem solving is dependent upon the individual personal motivational and contextual components.Problem solving in psychology refers to the process of finding solutions to problems encountered in life.Solutions to these problems are usually situation- or context-specific.