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It is said that ‘‘Energy is a critical component of our lives.Without energy, we can’t even dream of economic growth.On the other hand, the world’s heating condition is increasing every day.
Biomass can be defined as all biodegradable organic material derived from animals, plants, or microorganisms.
This definition also includes products, by-products, waste originating in agricultural activities, as well as non-fossil organic waste produced by industrial and municipal waste .
Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used.
Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines.
Biomass is the third most important source used to generate electricity and thermal applications [14,15].
The most common biomass feedstocks are banana peel, rice and coffee husks, sugarcane bagasse, palm oil processing residues, and the waste of animals [16,17].Combustion is a thermochemical process used for the production of heat, which consists of a chemical reaction in which a fuel is oxidised, and a large amount of energy is released in the form of heat (exothermic reaction).Pyrolysis is a thermal decomposition process which takes place in the absence of oxygen [19,20].The paper also discusses different pyrolysis products, their yields, and factors affecting biomass products, including the present status of the pyrolysis process and future challenges.This study concluded that the characteristics of pyrolysis products depend on the biomass used, and what the pyrolysis product, such as bio-oil, can contribute to the local economy.Biomass is a promising sustainable and renewable energy source, due to its high diversity of sources, and as it is profusely obtainable everywhere in the world.It is the third most important fuel source used to generate electricity and for thermal applications, as 50% of the global population depends on biomass.In combustion and gasification processes, the first step is pyrolysis, followed by total or partial oxidation of primary products.Gasification is the process of generating electricity by applying heat to organic material in the presence of less oxygen.Biomass can be considered as a blend of organic resources and minor amounts of minerals, which also contains carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine .Different types of energy can be produced through the thermal conversion of biomass, such as combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, fermentation, and anaerobic decomposition.