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In addition, monitoring networks are typically sparse, which is a challenge when using monitoring sites to represent population exposure (Willocks 2018), but observational air quality data, whether ground-based or from remote sensing can only reveal the combined effect of changes in emissions, land use, and meteorological conditions on the formation, transport and environmental fate of pollutants.Atmospheric chemistry transport models (ACTMs) explicitly consider all of these processes, and can be used to forecast as well as to reconstruct historic scenarios.Long-term trends of air pollution and its effects on human and ecosystem health are usually assessed through analysis of time series of measurements collected through regulatory monitoring networks.
By letting all these gases release into the air, it makes it harder to breathe.
Ozone can cause part of your lungs to close off and make it harder to breathe.
To address this evidence gap, we modelled the effect of four decades of emission reductions across Europe on UK annual mean concentrations of regulated air pollutants and their health impacts at ten-year time intervals of 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010.
In order to focus on the impact of emission changes brought about by policy measures, all model runs were conducted using the same meteorological input data, varying only the emissions using available historic emission inventory data.
Approximately 80% of our air pollution comes from hydrocarbons released by vegetation.
What Causes Air Pollution Air pollution is caused by many things such as car fumes, burning of fossil fuels, furnaces.Over the 40 year period, UK attributable mortality due to exposure to PM Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence.Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. It is estimated to account for about 4.2 million deaths and to rank 5th worldwide among all risk factors (HEI 2017).As a consequence, it is a challenge to disentangle the size of the effect of emissions reductions (as a result of policy implementation) from the inter-annual variability due to meteorological variability (Pope 2017).It is information on the effects of emissions reductions on long-term air pollution trends that gives insight on effectiveness of past policies and helps inform future policy development, as for instance presented by EPA (2011), Matus (2016) have made a case for the evaluation of policy effectiveness in their review and developed frameworks for accountability studies more generally.For example, emissions of NO concentrations did rise with the increase of road transport, until catalytic converters and increasingly stringent emissions standards led to a decoupling of emission trends from transport development.In parallel, concentrations of ground-level ozone (O concentrations.The worldwide increase in the burning of coal and oil since the late 1940s has led to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide.The resulting greenhouse effect has reduced the escape of infrared radiation from the earth, causing a possible global warming trend.Hence, the modelled changes in air pollutant concentrations and related health effects are solely a function of the changes in emissions since 1970.These changes in emissions are primarily driven by policy interventions, ranging from phasing out of specific fuels or substances, to regulating the use of chemicals and driving the development of cleaner, more efficient technologies.